Territorial boundaries: North – Papua New Guinea, Indonesia Timor sea and the Arafura Sea, East – New Zealand, Coral Sea and Caledonia, South- Antarctica, West – the Indian Ocean
Most important waterways: Sydney, Melbourne, Perth, Brisbane, Darwin, Adelaide, Cairns
Area: Australis is the sixth largest country with an area of 7.6 million km2
Important cities: Sydney, Melbourne, Cairns, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Alice Springs
Highest point: Mount Kosciusko (7,310 ft.)
Lowest point: Lake Eyre (-49 ft.)
Time zone: UTC +8 hours to UTC +10
Climate: The climate in Australia is the sunshine all years around. But the max temperature is 30°C and the lowest is around 15-20°C.
Seasons: Australia has four seasons, much like Canada; summer (December-February) spring (September- November) winter (June-August) autumn (March-May).
Geographical features versus the means of transportation: Australia is one of the most developed in Oceania in terms of transportation. Australia has some of the best trains in the country and also trams of the roads.
Fauna: The Fauna in Australia consist of a huge variety of animals, some are about 83% of mammals and 89% are reptiles of fish and insects and 93% are amphibians that are found in the country.
Flora: The type of flora that Australia is comprised with a vase of the assemblage of many plants species that is to be estimated to be over 20,000 vascular and 14,000 non-vascular plants. We can find 250,000 species of fungi and over 3,000 lichens. This is the most beautiful flora in the world. They also have the biggest quantity of Eucalyptus trees.
- 1521 Portuguese expedition
- 1770 James Cook arrived in Australia
- 1851 Victoria separated from New South Wales
- 1889 The completion of the railway between Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney
- 1901 First parliament house in Melbourne
- 1901 The Australian flag was flown for the first time
- 1932 The Sydney Harbour bridge was open
- 2000 Howard government introduces a goods and service taxes
- 2001 Australia celebrates centenary of federation
- 2011 Queensland flood
- 2013 Tony Abbott defeats Kevin Rudd to become the 28th Prime minister of Australia
Political regime: Parliamentary Democracy
Population: 23,984,800,000 (December 7 2015)
Languages: English + 100 indigenous languages, Mandarin, Italian
Religions: 25.8% Catholic, 18.7% Anglican, 5.7% Uniting church, about 6% of the population are non-Christian
Main source of revenue: mining and agriculture and manufacturing, tourism
Currency: Australian Dollars – 1 CAD to 1.02 AUD
Gastronomy: In Australia the gastronomy is a variety of different cuisines. Some of the Australia dishes are a mix of different cultures that are around the country.
Protocol: In Australia the protocol is the very informal atmosphere and it prevails by shaking the hands in the customary greeting. The casual wear is worn to everyone except in certain restaurant, social gatherings and important business meetings
Main airports: Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Cairns, Perth, Adelaide.
Main airlines: Air China, Air Canada, British Airways, Japan Airlines, Air Canada, American Airlines, Qantas.
Entry/Exit requirements: Passport – valid 6 months after departure
Tourist visa: Required
Safety: Australia is a very safe country even in big cities. Petty crime such as pickpocketing, purse snatching and theft occur. Be vigilant in tourist areas, and always keep your documentation in a safe at the hotel
Vaccins to consider: Hepatitis A&B, Influenza, Polio, Rabies
New year’s Day: Celebrated on the 1st of January.
Australia Day: January 26th
Anzac Day: April 25th (Remembrance Day)
Queens Birthday Celebration: June 8th
Example of circuit in Australia:
Day 1: Arrive in Melbourne
Days 2-4: Visit Melbourne city centre
Days 5-6: Drive to the great ocean road to visit the twelve apostles
Day 7: Drive to Adelaide
Days 8-9: Visit Adelaide for a day tour
Day 10: Drive to Coober Pedy
Days 10-12: Visit Coober Pedy in an Opal Mine
Day 13: Drive to Uluru
Day 14: wake up early to see the sunrise and after the sunset
Day 15: Visit a local tribe to understand the culture of their history
Day 16: Drive to Alice Springs
Days 17-18: Visit Alice Springs
Day 19: Drive back to Melbourne by stopping in Port Augusta
Day 20: Stop in Ballarat to visit sovereign hill
Day 21: Leave from Melbourne to Montreal
Not to miss:
The Great Ocean Road: The great ocean road is the most beautiful Australian national heritage which is listed for 243 km which stretch all along the eastern coast of Australia. It was built by the returned soldiers from the WWI and it’s the largest road in the world to be made for fallen soldiers.
The Harbour bridge: The Harbour bridge is where you can climb on it and it was used during 2000 for the millennium celebrations. The Sydney harbour bridge is a structure that was made out of steel through the arch bridge and across the beautiful harbour of Sydney. From the bridge you have a great view of the Sydney Opera house.